Même si la situation n'était pas idéale auparavant (en témoignent les années de bagne et la censure dont fut l'objet Dostoïevski), à partir d'octobre 1917 et jusque bien après le dégel post-stalinien, dire que la parole fut contrainte est faible. La chape de plomb s'abattit rapidement et fermement sur les romanciers et les poètes..
At the end of March 2010, when a proposal for a Council decision on the establishment of the External Action Service was launched, even Catherine Ashton, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, could not know that it would take until the end of October for implementation to begin. What happened in the European Parliament that had such an influence on the EEAS's creation process?
Under the Lisbon Treaty, conflict prevention is for the first time explicitly stated as a purpose of the Union's external action, alongside democracy, the rule of law, human rights, poverty reduction, global trade integration, environmental protection, disaster management and multilateral cooperation. However, conflict prevention, in its long-term, structural form, is linked to all these objectives. Will the European External Action Service (EEAS) be able to ensure that the Union's external relations are more coherent and efficient at preventing conflicts?
A new perspective has emerged in the current negociations for Turkey's accession to the EU. Egemen Bagis, the Chief EU Negociator, now refers to the "Norwegian model": in case of a "yes" from the EU, a national referendum would take place in Turkey and have the last word upon the accession... Is this model relevant? Einar Wigen, a Norwegian researcher, provides us with an in-depth analysis of the matter