Some EU officials argue that the result of enlargement may not be as important as the process. Indeed, acceeding to the EU implies a significant metamorphosis from the applicants: to comply with the Helsinki criteria (state of law, resistant free-economy, respect of human rights, respect of the acquis communautaire, etc), to get “europeanized”, adaptation is the only way possible. What shape does this transformation take, especially in Turkey ?
“Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us”, Oscar Wilde shrewdly wrote in The Importance of Being Earnest. Not only is this diary individual, but it is also national, as the recent arrests of wartime Bosnian Serb General Ratko Mladić and Croatian Serb President Goran Hadžić have shown. While raising the question of the European future of Serbia, these two arrests also brought back to life different Yugoslavian memories. This paper will analyze the role of historians, politicians and judicial institutions in the (re)construction of memory.
Endless controversies are revived every now and then by PM Erdoğan’s declarations, Cyprus topical events or AKP’s unambiguous victory in June exhaust the question of whether or not Turkey should become a member of the EU. Going beyond this question and taking a step back, pondering on Turkey’s share in European memory provides some elements of answers as regards to Turkey’s past and present place in Europe’s, and proves enlightening for future debates about Europe itself.
In recent times, Euroscepticism has become a quite common attitude in member states. Some sensitives European issues like enlargement to Turkey still reflect it. But what about Euroscepticism from the other side – among Turkish people ?
Armin Theophil Wegner (1886 –1978) was a German soldier and medic in World War who came to be a witness of the Armenian genocide, taking numbers of photographs in the Armenian deportation camps. Ayşegül Şah Bozdoğan, a philosopher of Istanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi, tells his story and reflects upon it.
When the membership process of Turkey to the European Union is mentioned, one of the first questions that come to mind is concerns Turkey's place in the history of Europe. If we try to answer the question from the perspective of Turkish immigrants in Europe, it may be asked whether Turkish immigrants have contributed to the European Memory or not, and if so, to what extent.
Europe has recently been rocked by an international scandal that entangled an ex-KGB man wanted for ordering mass killings in Lithuania, named Michail Golovatov, Austrian law, Lithuanian institutions and the unity as well as the standing of the European Union. At the core of this event was the fact that Austrian officials set free the soviet Officer just a few hours after his arrest in Vienna. We have decided to find out how two scholars of different subjects who originate from the post-Soviet countries and who gained their education at western universities would evaluate this situation.
The past and present of EU-Moldova relations can be framed between two main periods: February 2005, when the joint ENP Action Plan was launched to trigger the first stage of cooperation; and January 2010, when the EU and Moldova started negotiations on an Association Agreement. In this timeline the European Union has continually increased the volume of assistance provided to Moldova, with numbers reaching about 100 million Euros annually until 2013, according to the data provided by the Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Nevertheless, the real perspectives of EU integration of Moldova are just as unclear now as they were six years ago. How did these perspectives develop over time and to what extent were the reforms truly implemented in Moldova? And, generally speaking, is the EU integration of the country a feasible idea in the near or far future ?
After Turkey's 17th general elections held on 12 June 2011, the first Turkish EU Ministry was established in Turkey. The former chief negotiator Egemen Bağış became the first Minister for EU Affairs and Chief Negotiator on the Establishment of the Ministry of EU Affairs. Since it is supposed to replace the Secretariat General for the EU Affairs, many EU experts and politicians, not only in Turkey but also in the EU, consider that it constitutes a significant institutional improvement.
July 2011 marked the beginning of the Polish presidency of the European Union. Strenghtening the CSDP is one of the targets put forward. However, already during its accession process to the EU, Poland has been keen on getting involved in the transformation of the European Security and Defence Policy and has continued to do so since it became a member. Nonetheless, one must not forget the weight NATO and the USA have in the Polish Army.